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Typically a 95 percent of babies are placed to be born in the cephalic position, that is, head down, with the chin resting on the chest, the buttocks up and the legs and arms bent and close to the body. This position is the most natural, as it facilitates the baby's passage through the birth canal and, from a medical point of view, the cephalic position is also the best for birth, since the head opens the way for the body to pass and facilitates the expulsion of the baby.
When the baby is positioned cephalad just before birth, delivery is usually natural and vaginal. However, the baby can also adopt other positions within the uterus, which may require delivery by cesarean section. Thus, the baby can be on the breech, in a transverse position, facing or facing the front, preventing delivery from occurring vaginally.
The final position that the baby has adopted to be born will not be known until the last moment. Although in the last weeks before delivery, the gynecologist can visualize the position of the baby through an ultrasound, there can always be a change of plans at the last minute. It is true that a nine-month-old baby has little room to move inside the uterus, but they still do. The amniotic fluid allows it to change position with some ease and move within the amniotic sac, although due to its greater weight and height, its activity decreases, especially in the last weeks of gestation. Also, at the beginning of labor and contractions, many breech or other babies adopt the cephalic position for birth. Therefore, it is not really decided until the last moment whether the baby will be delivered vaginally or by cesarean section.
Statistics show that the majority of babies, 95 percent, are placed cephalad to be born and those who adopt inappropriate postures are usually the fewest. Circumstances that prevent improper placement of the baby to be born are premature deliveries and twins. In the case of premature babies, they are not usually placed because they will be born early. In twin pregnancies, babies usually place one in a cephalic position and the other in a breech position to gain space within the uterus.
1. Cephalic position.It is the natural position that the 95 percent of babies To born. It facilitates the labor of expulsion for the mother because the head offers, first, the crown that has the smallest diameter for the exit of the head and, in turn, this opens the way through the birth canal to the rest of the body. Delivery usually takes place vaginally, with a few exceptions: if the baby's head is too large to cross the maternal pelvic bones or if there is some maternal reason that prevents it, such as maternal heart disease, insufficient dilation or difficulty in Push...
2. Head slightly flexed. One in 100 children It presents this position at birth and usually spontaneously during the course of labor. It is another version of the cephalic position, but the variant consists in that the baby does not have the chin close to the thorax and by keeping the head slightly flexed it makes it difficult to get out. Labor can take place vaginally, but it will be slower because the skull presses on the mother's sacrum as it forces outward and causes back pain in the mother.
3. Face or front.It is a very unusual position, occurs only in 0.3 percent of cases and usually occurs when there are uterine malformations. It is a version of the cephalic position in which the child is face down, but instead of the crown, it is the face or forehead that appears through the birth canal. In this position, the baby's head is slightly raised, making expulsion difficult. Because the head is not flexed over the thorax, its diameter is too large to pass through the pelvic bones. A cesarean section is usually the method of choice in these cases.
4. Breech or breech position. It is the most frequent, among the other possible alternatives to the cephalic position. In this case, the buttocks, the feet, or both at the same time appear through the birth canal. Babies usually adopt this position when they have an umbilical cord that is too short, the placenta instead of being in the upper part of the uterus, is in the lower part (as in the photograph) or the uterus has some malformation. In most of these cases a cesarean section is usually performed. However, if the mother has given birth before, her pelvis is wide and her baby's head is small, she can deliver vaginally.
5. Transverse position.This position is very rare, since it only occurs in 0.4% of pregnancies. In this case, the baby is presented lying down in a horizontal or crossed position. Generally, it is necessary to resort to caesarean section, since vaginal expulsion is impossible. However, when contractions begin, these babies twist and are usually positioned cephalad. For this reason, it is preferable to wait until the last moment before determining whether to deliver by cesarean section.
Marisol New. Guiainfantil.com
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