Types of anesthesia for children

Types of anesthesia for children

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Anesthesia is a word that comes from the Greek, and whose meaning is 'insensitivity'. It is a medical act controlled by a specialist in anesthesiology and resuscitation, in which drugs are administered to block the tactile and painful sensitivity of a patient, whether in all or part of his body.

It is a fundamental procedure without which current medicine would be meaningless. Anesthesia is necessary to operate and to perform certain procedures or painful complementary tests. In fact, surgery without anesthesia is practically impossible, even for pain lovers. In the past, it ended up being the pain itself that, sooner or later, stole the consciousness of patients to end their suffering.

1. Local anesthesia. Only a small area of ​​the body is sensitive to pain. The child maintains consciousness at all times. It is a common technique in dentistry (dentist) and in minor procedures on the skin.

2. Locoregional anesthesia. Sensitivity is removed from a larger region of the body. Most often, the level of consciousness is also maintained, although it depends on the area to be anesthetized. This type of anesthesia can be:

to. Troncular. It affects the sensitivity of a particular nerve or nerve plexus.

b. Neuroaxial. It blocks the pain signal at the level of the spinal cord. The anesthetic medicine can be administered in the vicinity of the spinal cord (known as epidural anesthesia, typical of childbirth) or within the spinal cord itself (known as spinal or spinal anesthesia).

3. General anesthesia. A transient state of unconsciousness is induced by the controlled administration of medications intravenously, by inhalation route, or both (balanced anesthesia). These drugs should be:

to. Major pain relievers. Obviously, the goal is to eliminate pain. Natural opioids such as morphine or synthetic opioids such as fentanyl are often used.

b. Hypnotics. To induce sleep and reduce anxiety. In addition, they tend to produce a certain degree of amnesia, so we would not remember the moments before or after anesthesia.

c. Autonomic nervous system modulators. That is, protection against normal reactions of the body caused by pain, such as sweating, changes in blood pressure or increased heart rate.

d. Muscle relaxants. To achieve immobility of the patient, reduce the resistance of the cavities opened by surgery and allow artificial mechanical ventilation through respirators that ensure oxygenation and the administration of inhalational anesthetics.

Although losing consciousness, or not feeling pain, always generates some fear and anxiety, modern anesthesiology is very advanced and the side effects are exceptional. As always in medicine, every procedure and every treatment has its risks, but we only apply those in which the benefit-risk ratio is clearly favorable to the benefit.

In conclusion, and in a humorous way, if the firefighter who is putting out the fire in his house would never ask him "to use little water", and if the stewardess who is getting him a parachute on the plane that is falling would never ask him I would say "give me a little one", do not tell the anesthetist that "please, give him little anesthesia". In fact, once the child tries it, it is possible that he approaches the anesthetist's ear to whisper: "please give me a little more."

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Video: Your Childs General Anaesthetic - Magic Milk and Squidgy Masks (August 2022).